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Proxmox Virtual Environment

Set up

Windows VM

  • How to Unlock a Proxmox VM. Then reboot pve.
  • For Windows installation, if we are dropped at the EFI shell, we can use reset -s to shut down the system.
  • Windows VirtIO Drivers & Creating Windows virtual machines using virtIO drivers from
  • (Videos) Launching a Windows VM in Proxmox (Win10), Virtualize Windows 10 with Proxmox VE (Win10)
  • In OS tab, be sure to choose the right Guest OS Version; if we choose (10/2016/2019), we will select 2019 in the driver folder locations OR if choose (11/2022), we will select the corresponding driver folders. This affects the later steps when we select the drivers to install.
  • There are 3 drivers we shall install.
    • vioscsi\win10\amd64\vioscsi.inf (we need it in order to see the virtual disk)
    • NetKVM\w10\amd64\netkvm.inf (in order to get network working, this can be installed later from Windows Device Manager)
    • Balloon\win10\amd64\balloon.inf (memory balloon driver, this can be installed later)
    • Guest agent (Qemu-guest-agent). Make sure we have installed all missing drivers from Device Manager. We can go to virtual machine Summary tab to check if the IPs shows the Windows IP.
  • Change network to use a static IP.
  • Enable RDP.
  • For Audio, we need to add it to the hardware list (driver=spice is OK). PS: audio works when I tested using the Microsoft Remote Desktop app on mac. It does not work when I use Remmina app from Ubuntu initially but if I change the sound setting (from "Off" to "Local" in the "Advanced" tab) it works.
  • Windows 11. We can still use 10/2016/2019 for the Version selection. When I check the Task Manager (Windows 11 Pro, Version 21H2, OS build 22000.675), it shows 1.8/4GB was used and 101 out of 127GB is free.
    • OS: version 10/2016/2019
    • System: BIOS: OVMF (UEFI). Machine - q35. Add TPM. Qemu Agent. SCSI: VirtIO SCCI
    • HD: Bus-VirtIO Block. Disk size >=32
    • CPU: Cores >=2. Type - Host
    • Memory
    • Network: VirtIO
    • After finish, adding CD/DVD - VirtIO iso
    • Install: Browse VirtIO disk. AMD - win10. Next, browse NetKVM - win10.
    • After reboot. Continue to answer questions. Reboot
    • File manager. VirtIO disk. Run virtio-win-gt-x64.exe.
    • Right click on Start. Device Manager. All clean.

Mac VM

Install on Debian

Installing Proxmox VE 7.x on Debian Bullseye for custom partition layout (video)

Cheat sheet

Home Server

My Proxmox Home Server Walk-Through

Display, copy-and-paste

  • For Windows OS, we can use the default (noVNC)
  • For Linux OS, SPICE is better. Screen can be scaled as we want. Copy and paste still does not work after I installed spice-vdagent. virt-manager Spice copy paste doesn't work. But the copy-paste function works in Debian VM launched by Virtual Machine Manager (actually the menu bar are different. One is called 'Remote Viewer'/remote-viewer and the other embedded viewer from /usr/bin/qemu-system-x86_64 is called 'QEMU/KVM').
    • (Debian11 and antiX VMs) When I use "ps -ef | grep spice", I got /usr/sbin/spice-vdagentd & /usr/bin/spice-vdagent as shown in the screenshot here for the VM launched by QEMU/KVM. But I did not see /usr/bin/spice-vdagent in the VM launched by Proxmox.
    • B/C a hint from above, I found a solution here. After I run /usr/bin/spice-vdagent , copy-and-paste works!
    • In summary, 1) sudo apt install vdagent 2) /usr/bin/spice-vdagent
    • (Fedora 35). Copy-and-paste works out of box (vdagentd & vdagent are automatically running in the background). Maybe it's because Fedora is a Red Hat based Linux OS.
    • How to add spice-vdagent to VirtIO VM?

Sound/audio and SPICE

Remote Desktop through browser

can't shutdown a VM

Use the command qm unlock XXX

qm stop XXX
# can't lock file '/var/lock/qemu-server/lock-996.conf' - got timeout

qm unlock XXX
qm stop XXX

Now we can go back to proxmox GUI to remove the vm.

But if the "qm unlock" does not work, we can use the kill command. See Proxmox can’t stop VM – How we fix it!

ps aux | grep "/usr/bin/kvm -id VMID"
kill -9 PID  # VM will stop

Errors and solutions

Removing ProxMox Subscription Notice




I saw the wearout is 99% on my host disk (240GB Kingston SSD). I cannot delete a VM. If I use the command "qm destroy XXX", it shows "Unable to create output file '/var/log/pve/tasks/1/UPID:pvv....:qmdestroy:108:[email protected]:' - Read-only file system". The host disk uses only 37% of storage on root partition. The solution: reboot Proxmox.

Storage Drive

  • How to add storage to Proxmox
  • How To Add External USB Storage To Proxmox
  • Add a new physical hard drive to Proxmox VE 4x 5x
  • Add Storage Drive To Proxmox 7
  • Format a disk Prepare the drive
    fdisk /dev/nvme0n1
     : p
     : d
     :   ENTER
     : p
     : w
     : p
     : w
     : q 
    Now to go GUI, pve -> Disks -> Directory -> Create Dir.
  • Storage: LVM Thin
  • lsblk, df -h and more
    # lsblk
    sda            8:0    0 223.6G  0 disk 
    ├─sda1         8:1    0  1007K  0 part 
    ├─sda2         8:2    0   512M  0 part /boot/efi
    └─sda3         8:3    0 223.1G  0 part 
      ├─pve-swap 253:0    0     8G  0 lvm  [SWAP]
      └─pve-root 253:1    0 215.1G  0 lvm  /
    nvme0n1      259:0    0 465.8G  0 disk 
    └─nvme0n1p1  259:1    0 465.8G  0 part /mnt/pve/vm1
    # df -h
    Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    udev                  7.7G     0  7.7G   0% /dev
    tmpfs                 1.6G  1.3M  1.6G   1% /run
    /dev/mapper/pve-root  214G   30G  176G  15% /
    tmpfs                 7.8G   40M  7.7G   1% /dev/shm
    tmpfs                 5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
    /dev/nvme0n1p1        458G  2.0G  433G   1% /mnt/pve/vm1
    /dev/sda2             511M  328K  511M   1% /boot/efi
    /dev/fuse             128M   16K  128M   1% /etc/pve
    tmpfs                 1.6G     0  1.6G   0% /run/user/0
    # fdisk -l
    Disk /dev/nvme0n1: 465.76 GiB, 500107862016 bytes, 976773168 sectors
    Disk model: WDC WDS500G2B0C                         
    Device         Start       End   Sectors   Size Type
    /dev/nvme0n1p1  2048 976773134 976771087 465.8G Linux filesystem
    Disk /dev/sda: 223.57 GiB, 240057409536 bytes, 468862128 sectors
    Disk model: KINGSTON SA400S3
    Device       Start       End   Sectors   Size Type
    /dev/sda1       34      2047      2014  1007K BIOS boot
    /dev/sda2     2048   1050623   1048576   512M EFI System
    /dev/sda3  1050624 468862094 467811471 223.1G Linux LVM
    Disk /dev/mapper/pve-swap: 8 GiB, 8589934592 bytes, 16777216 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    Disk /dev/mapper/pve-root: 215.07 GiB, 230925795328 bytes, 451026944 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    # pvdisplay
      --- Physical volume ---
      PV Name               /dev/sda3
      VG Name               pve
      PV Size               <223.07 GiB / not usable <3.57 MiB
      Allocatable           yes (but full)
      PE Size               4.00 MiB
      Total PE              57105
      Free PE               0
      Allocated PE          57105
      PV UUID               4taiYE-DDJa-4UdU-v3QY-kd2s-7r5i-shhJ7Q
  • Benchmark HD speed
    hdparm -t --direct /dev/nvme0n1p1
    hdparm -t --direct /dev/sda3
  • lvresize vs lvextend. lvextend can only increase the size of a volume, whereas lvresize can increase or reduce it. Increase the size of an LVM logical volume.
  • How to Manage and Use LVM (Logical Volume Management) in Ubuntu

Guest agent


Proxmox LXC Intel Quick Sync Transcode for Plex

Clone (full clone vs convert to template)

Backup and restore VM

  • Backup and Restore from proxmox wiki. How to Backup Proxmox? Proxmox Backup and Recovery Methods.
  • How to backup and transfer a Proxmox VM to another Proxmox Node
    • Backup file has a timestamp on the filename and it is saved to /var/lib/vz/dump if it is saved in local (pve) or /mnt/pve/vm1/dump if it is saved on my vm1 storage.
    • The backup file can be seen on the GUI under $STORAGE (pve) -> Backups where $STORAGE is the storage name (e.g. local). From there, it has a 'Restore' button where we can restore it with an option to enter a new VM ID.
    • If the backup file is saved in local (pve), the backup file can also be seen under the VM|Backup menu.
    • The backup VM has a filename vzdump-qemu-$ID-$Date-$Time.vma.zst (compression by default). If we select the file, we can click the 'Restore' button to restore the VM.
    • After restoring, the new VM has a new ID but the VM name is still the same as the original one (so we can only use the ID to distinguish the VMs). Therefore, if we use the static IP in a VM, it is better to shut down the old one before we Start the new VM.
    • If we remove/delete the restored VM, the backup file is not affected (not deleted).
    • It seems backup + restore = clone.
    • If we back up a container, the backup file name has a format vzdump-lxc-$ID-$Date-$Time.tar.zst.
    • The backup speed is quick. Using the "top" command it shows it is the command zstd running for the backup.
  • Restore Proxmox VM from backup – Here are the steps to recover your VM

Mount a Network Share in a Linux Container

How to mount a Network Share in a Linux Container under Proxmox

Setup a MediaWiki Server

How to Setup a MediaWiki 1.31 Server on a Debian 10 Proxmox container

Multiple node cluster

USB passthrough

Thin client

Raspberry Pi THIN CLIENT for Proxmox VMs

Android app

Proxmox Virtual Environment

Android emulator and nested virtualization

Is there a guide to getting Android x86 installed on Proxmox?


Am I compromised? If you need true remote access, set up a VPN that you connect to on your router.

Error 401: no ticket

Empty browser's cache. It works.

Cloud image, Cloud-init

Proxmox vs. ESXi

Remote machine management

Self-Hosted Remote Desktop Connection Alternatives