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Geekbench and Geekbench browser

Geekbench is a cross-platform benchmark that measures the performance of your computer's processor and memory.

tar xf Geekbench-5.3.1-Linux.tar.gz
cd Geekbench-5.3.1-Linux/


# Enable 'Universe' first
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install sysbench
sysbench --num-threads=1 --test=cpu --cpu-max-prime=20000 run
# sysbench version is 0.4.12, Ubuntu 16.04, 10000 events 

sysbench cpu --threads=1 --cpu-max-prime=20000 --time=0 --events=10000 run
# sysbench version 1.0.11, Ubuntu 18.04

See Odroid C4 vs Raspberry Pi 4 (ExplainingComputers) for a video demonstration. See Raspberry Pi OS Bullseye Update: New Features & Camera Issues for a comparison of the syntax of version 0.4.12 and 1.0.x.

Two websites have a database for benchmarks.

Device Total time (1-thread) Total time (all threads) Average CPU Mark
Intel i7-11850H @ 2.5GHz (Dell Latitude 5521, 8 cores, 16 threads) 6.42s 1.1s
Intel Core i7-8850H @ 2.6GHz Macbook Pro 2018 (6 cores, 12 threads) brew install sysbench 0.0028s (not reliable on macOS) 0.0008s 12407
Xeon E5-1650 Dell Precision T3600 (6 cores, 12 threads) 23s 2.5s 11808
Intel i5-4590T (4-core) Dell Optiplex 3020M 5622
Intel i5 8259U (4-core) NUC8i5BEH 4-core 8-thread 20.7s 3.2s
AMD Phenom II X6 1055T (6-core) 28s 5.5s 5058
Intel Core2 Quad Q9500 @2.8GHz (4-core) Yorkfield 23.8s 6.1s 3542
Intel Pentium J5005 4-core 4-thread (Gemini Lake) NUC7PJYH 16 4.3s
Intel Core2 Duo E8400 @3.0GHz (2-core) 21.5s 11.5s 2178
Intel Core i3-4010U @ 1.7GHz (4-core) 47.2s 13.4s 2437
Core(TM) i3-3110M @ 2.40GHz (4-core) 35s 10s 3049
Core(TM) i7-2640M CPU @ 2.80GHz (Lenovo T420s) 3933
Atom(TM) z3735G @ 1.33GHz (hp stream 8 2-core) 918
Atom(TM) z2760 @ 1.8GHz (lenovo lynx 2-core) 576
Atom(TM) N270 @ 1.60GHz (EEE PC 2-core) 192s 120s 272
RPi1 (1-core) 1412s
RPi2 (4-core) 768s 191s
RPi3B BCM2837 SoC @ 1.2Ghz (4-core) 382s 100s
RPi3B+ BCM2837 SoC @ 1.4GHz (4-core)
RPi0-W (1-core) 624s
BeagleBlack (1-core) 673s
UDoo (2-core) 603s 302s
UDoo X86 Advanced Celeron N3160 2.24 GHZ turbo speed (2-core, 4 threads) 52s 13s 1472
ODroid xu4 (8-core) 372s 40s
Jetson nano (4-core) 21.4s 5s

Note that

watch -n1 "cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep \"MHz\""
sudo cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/*/cpufreq/cpuinfo_max_freq

Install 0.4.12 from source

For some reason, the threads option in version 1.0 does not work. See cpu test: single thread and multi-threads get the same result and Question about CPU benchmarking.

If we need to use version 0.4.12, we need to build from the source.

sudo apt install automake autoconf libtool libmysqlclient-dev libssl1.0.0 libssl-dev make

tar zxvf sysbench-0.4.12.tar.gz
cd sysbench-0.4.12/
./configure --without-mysql
sudo make # Cannot establish any listening sockets - Make sure an X server isn't already running(EE)
          # ...
          # ../libtool: line 5281: : command not found
sudo make install

Run using Docker

Odroid xu4

$ docker run -it --rm ubuntu:16.04 bash
# apt update
# apt-get install sysbench
# sysbench --num-threads=8 --test=cpu --cpu-max-prime=20000 run

sysbench 0.4.12:  multi-threaded system evaluation benchmark

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 8
Additional request validation enabled.

Doing CPU performance benchmark

Threads started!

Maximum prime number checked in CPU test: 20000

Test execution summary:
    total time:                          39.5979s
    total number of events:              10000
    total time taken by event execution: 316.5830
    per-request statistics:
         min:                                 23.31ms
         avg:                                 31.66ms
         max:                                 73.12ms
         approx.  95 percentile:              37.96ms

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           1250.0000/201.36
    execution time (avg/stddev):   39.5729/0.01

# sysbench --help 
  sysbench [general-options]... --test=<test-name> [test-options]... command

General options:
  --num-threads=N            number of threads to use [1]
  --max-requests=N           limit for total number of requests [10000]
  --max-time=N               limit for total execution time in seconds [0]
  --forced-shutdown=STRING   amount of time to wait after --max-time before forcing shutdown [off]
  --thread-stack-size=SIZE   size of stack per thread [32K]
  --init-rng=[on|off]        initialize random number generator [off]
  --test=STRING              test to run
  --debug=[on|off]           print more debugging info [off]
  --validate=[on|off]        perform validation checks where possible [off]
  --help=[on|off]            print help and exit
  --version=[on|off]         print version and exit

Compiled-in tests:
  fileio - File I/O test
  cpu - CPU performance test
  memory - Memory functions speed test
  threads - Threads subsystem performance test
  mutex - Mutex performance test
  oltp - OLTP test

Commands: prepare run cleanup help version

See 'sysbench --test=<name> help' for a list of options for each test.


$ cat /etc/os-release
VERSION="18.04.5 LTS (Bionic Beaver)"

$ apt install sysbench # 1.0.11
$ sysbench cpu --threads=8 --cpu-max-prime=20000 --time=0 --events=10000 run
sysbench 1.0.11 (using system LuaJIT 2.1.0-beta3)

Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 8
Initializing random number generator from current time

Prime numbers limit: 20000

Initializing worker threads...

Threads started!

CPU speed:
    events per second:   221.17

General statistics:
    total time:                          45.2074s
    total number of events:              10000

Latency (ms):
         min:                                 25.98
         avg:                                 36.14
         max:                                 69.89
         95th percentile:                     44.98
         sum:                             361398.71

Threads fairness:
    events (avg/stddev):           1250.0000/246.26
    execution time (avg/stddev):   45.1748/0.01

Run sysbench 0.4.12 using singularity

  1. Install singularity either from pre-build binary or source (See the 'Docs' under
  2. Create a new sub and build a container
  3. 'Execute' the container
# step 1: the following method installed an old version (2.6.1) of singularity
$ wget -O- | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/neurodebian.sources.list
$ sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp:// 0xA5D32F012649A5A9
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt-get install singularity-container
$ singularity --version

# step 2
$ mkdir sysbench; cd sysbench
$ nano sysbench.def 
$ sudo singularity build sysbench0412 sysbench.def

# step 3
$ singularity exec sysbench0412 sysbench --num-threads=1 --test=cpu --cpu-max-prime=20000 --validate run
$ singularity exec sysbench0412 sysbench --num-threads=4 --test=cpu --cpu-max-prime=20000 --validate run

where the definition file <Singularity> (recall Ubuntu 16.04 still has the old version of sysbench) is

$ cat sysbench.def
Bootstrap: docker
From: ubuntu:16.04

    apt-get -y update
    apt-get -y install sysbench

    export LC_ALL=C
    export PATH=/usr/games:$PATH

Interestingly, the container build using singularity 2.6.1 also works on singularity 3.5.0 (compile from source).


tar xzvf nbench-byte-2.2.3.tar.gz
cd nbench-byte-2.2.3

CPU stress test

How to Impose High CPU Load and Stress Test on Linux Using ‘Stress-ng’ Tool

  • stress
    sudo apt-get install stress
    uptime; sudo stress --cpu  8 --timeout 20; uptime   # 8 cores, 20 seconds
  • stress-ng
    sudo apt-get install stress-ng    
    uptime; sudo stress-ng --cpu 8 --timeout 60 --metrics-brief; uptime 
    uptime; sudo stress-ng --cpu 4 --cpu-method fft --timeout 2m; uptime
    uptime; sudo stress-ng --hdd 5 --hdd-ops 100000; uptime
    uptime; sudo stress-ng --cpu 4 --io 4 --vm 1 --vm-bytes 1G --timeout 60s --metrics-brief; uptime



  • You can find the number of cores in an iGPU by looking up the specifications of the CPU that contains the iGPU. This information can be found on the manufacturer’s website or through a web search. For example, if you search for Intel Core i7-1185G7 specifications” you will find that this CPU has an integrated Intel Iris Xe Graphics with 96 Execution Units (EUs), which are equivalent to cores in a GPU.
  • AMD Radeon iGPU vs. Intel Iris Xe: What's the Best Integrated Graphics?

CPU/GPU overlock

3 Ways to Check If Your CPU or GPU Is Overclocked


  • The main difference between NVIDIA GeForce GTX and Quadro GPUs is their target audience and intended use.
    • GeForce GTX series is primarily designed for gaming and consumer-level applications. These graphics cards are optimized for high performance, which reduces latency in online games. GeForce GTX cards are designed specifically for gaming and consumer-level applications. They are optimized for high performance, which reduces latency in online games.
    • Quadro series is designed for professional applications such as computer-aided design (CAD), digital content creation (DCC), and scientific simulations. Quadro cards are designed for very specific render tasks like CAD design and professional video rendering. They also support double precision computations which are used in scientific research and digital content creation (DCC) 12. This makes them more suitable for scientific simulations than GTX cards.

Hardinfo (GUI)

sudo apt install hardinfo (this will appear in administration as “System Profiler & Benchmark”). See Odroid C4 vs Raspberry Pi 4.

Simple C program

See Time the iterations from 0 to_2147483647

Python vs C

How fast is C++ compared to Python?

R program

Gross inefficiency in influence.lm, r-source on github


Raspberry Pi 4B vs Jetson Nano

On Ubuntu, use one of the following commands to find out the graphics card information.

  • sudo lshw -C display
  • lspci | grep -i --color 'vga\|3d\|2d'


  • Macbook Pro A1990 (2018) @2.6GHz. 60fps 1000 fish, 44fps 5000 fish, 27fps 10000 fish
  • NUC7PJYH Pentium J5005 @2.8GHz. 60fps 1000 fish, 42fps 5000 fish, 26fps 10000 fish
  • Jetson nano 2G, 60fps 1000 fish, 26fps 5000 fish, 14fps 10000 fish


  • Raspberry Pi 4 vs. Raspberry Pi 5: 14 Key Differences
    • the PCIe on the Raspberry Pi 5 is a single-line PCI Express 2.0 x1 connector. This has a maximum bandwidth of 500MBps (Bytes, not bits). The latest PCIe 4.0 SSDs can do 8000Mbps (1000MBps).
    • Whether a SATA SSD connected to USB 3.0 is a better choice then an M.2 SSD connected to PCIe: USB 3.0 in the Pi 5 is 5Gbps, which is 625MBps. SATA 3 adapters can handle 6Gbps. PCIe 2.0 x1 is limited to 500MBps. So, it will be similar speeds for both SATA and PCIe SSDs on the Pi 5. The advantage with SATA adapters is that you do not need to use the HAT.

Disk speed test

KDiskMark (GUI)

KDiskMark Is A GUI HDD / SSD Benchmark Tool For Linux (Similar To CrystalDiskMark)


Linux and Unix Test Disk I/O Performance With dd Command

  • Test write speed
$ sync; dd if=/dev/zero of=tempfile bs=1M count=1024; sync; rm tempfile

# External storage
$ sync; dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/user/MyUSB/tempfile bs=1M count=1024; sync
  • Test read speed
$ dd if=tempfile of=/dev/null bs=1M count=1024  # do not use this

# Clear the cache
$ sudo /sbin/sysctl -w vm.drop_caches=3
$ dd if=tempfile of=/dev/null bs=1M count=1024  # consistent with 'disks' utility


To test the disk performance, follow Note that the parameter oflag=dsync makes a difference. -t and --direct measures data transfer rate but bypassing hard drive's buffer cache memory thus reading directly from the disk.

Here I have a 7200rpm Seagate (ST2000DM001-1CH164) and a 5400rpm WD-blue (WD30EZRZ-00WN9B0)

# Hard disk info
sudo hdparm -I /dev/sda
sudo hdparm -I /dev/sdb

# Writing speed, where /tmp is a directory from the disk 
dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test1.img bs=2G count=1; rm /tmp/test1.img
# 1.4 GB/s from either 5400 or 7200 rpm
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/brb/My\ Passport/test1.img bs=2G count=1
# 2147479552 bytes (2.1 GB, 2.0 GiB) copied, 12.0418 s, 178 MB/s. --- WD 2T HDD 

dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test1.img bs=2G count=1 oflag=dsync; rm /tmp/test1.img
# 115 MB/s from 5400 rpm
# 166 MB/s from 7200 rpm

# Latency
dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test2.img bs=512 count=1000 oflag=dsync; rm /tmp/test2.img
# 27.7 kB/s from 5400 rpm  <==== This is interesting
# 12.5 kB/s from 7200 rpm

# Read speed
dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test3.img bs=1G count=1 oflag=direct; rm /tmp/test3.img
# 122 MB/s from 5400 rpm
# 180 MB/s from 7200 rpm


  • dd manual
  • oflag=dsync: Use synchronized I/O for data. Do not skip this option. This option get rid of caching and gives you good and accurate results
lsblk   # find the root "/" device

sudo hdparm -t --direct /dev/mmcblk0p1  # eg internal
sudo hdparm -t --direct /dev/mmcblk0p2  # eg sd card
sudo hdparm -t --direct /dev/sda1       # eg USB 
sudo hdparm -Tt /dev/sda
sudo hdparm -t /dev/vdb                 # Measure Hard Disk Device Read Speed
sudo hdparm -T /dev/vdb                 # Measure Hard Disk Cache Read Speed
# Reading cache will give more higher performance than reading 
# from disk because only the cached data will be used and tested.

hdparm -I /dev/sda                      # show information about disk

NB: hdparm does not have the ability to find the write speed. You will have to use another command line utility called dd to find the write speed.

Example: Silicon-power 512GB ssd. The box says it can read up to 560MB/s & write up to 530MB/s. Below is a test result running on NUC Pentium Silver J5005 CPU.

$ sudo hdparm -t --direct /dev/sdb1
[sudo] password for brb: 

 Timing O_DIRECT disk reads: 1068 MB in  3.01 seconds = 355.34 MB/sec

On UDOO x86, the SSD is 341.77MB/s. The eMMC speed on UDOO x86 is 130MB/s. A portable HDD has a speed 24-29MB/s.

On ODroid x4, the eMMC is 150MB/s.

On phenom server, Samsung SSD 860 EVO 500GB is 235 MB/s, the HDD speed is 150MB/s (WD black WD4003FZEX 4TB, 2013) and 68MB/s (ST ST3640323as 640GB, 2014).

On Raspberry Pi 3B (sudo apt-get install hdparm), the microSD speed is 22MB/s only. The same SSD plugged to a USB2 port has a speed 34MB/s only.

on Dell t3600 Xeon E5-1650, the HDD (WD Blue 3TB 5400 rpm) speed is 50MB/s and the external USB (WD My Book 4T) is 25MB/s (216.50 kB/s before waking up).

Odroid C4 vs Raspberry Pi 4 Micro SD Card, USB 3.0 SSD, eMMC module.

SLC cache in SSD

SMART data

  • S.M.A.R.T. and SSDs from
  • What SMART Stats Tell Us About Hard Drives
  • SSDs and SMART Data from
  • How to Monitor HDD/SSD SMART Drive Health Parameters including SSD NVMe/SATA over Network
  • Most USB controllers/enclosures do not support smart data. SMART is defined for SATA and SAS type interfaces. How to enable S.M.A.R.T on SSD
  • Monitoring and Testing the Health of SSD in Linux
    • Search the keyword fail or attribute
    • Because Lack of normalization or metainformation for vendor-specific data, many attributes are reported as “Unknown_SSD_Attribute.”
    • The test option also works on the host os drive
  • How to configure smartd and be notified of hard disk problems via email
      • A table to recap common options
  • Microcenter 480gb SSD. Use -i -A -a options.
    $ sudo smartctl -i /dev/sda 
    smartctl 7.1 2019-12-30 r5022 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-56-generic] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-19, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke,
    Model Family:     Phison Driven OEM SSDs
    Device Model:     SATA SSD
    Serial Number:    18060548000982
    LU WWN Device Id: 0 000000 000000000
    Firmware Version: SBFM61.2
    User Capacity:    480,103,981,056 bytes [480 GB]
    Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
    Rotation Rate:    Solid State Device
    Form Factor:      2.5 inches
    Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
    ATA Version is:   ACS-4 (minor revision not indicated)
    SATA Version is:  SATA 3.2, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
    Local Time is:    Thu Dec 22 12:05:47 2022 EST
    SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
    SMART support is: Enabled
    $ sudo smartctl -A /dev/sda 
    smartctl 7.1 2019-12-30 r5022 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-56-generic] (local build)
    Copyright (C) 2002-19, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke,
    SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
    Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
      1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000b   100   100   050    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
      9 Power_On_Hours          0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       24481
     12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       410
    168 SATA_Phy_Error_Count    0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
    170 Bad_Blk_Ct_Erl/Lat      0x0003   066   066   010    Pre-fail  Always       -       0/549
    173 MaxAvgErase_Ct          0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       64 (Average 33)
    192 Unsafe_Shutdown_Count   0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       93
    194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0023   067   067   000    Pre-fail  Always       -       33 (Min/Max 33/33)
    218 CRC_Error_Count         0x000b   100   100   050    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
    231 SSD_Life_Left           0x0013   100   100   000    Pre-fail  Always       -       98
    241 Lifetime_Writes_GiB     0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       8864
    $ sudo smartctl -i -a /dev/sda
  • Sandisk Extreme 55AE external SSD: "sudo smartctl -i -d scsi /dev/sdc". Without specify "-d", I'll get the following message (see this post)
    /dev/sdc: Unknown USB bridge [0x0781:0x55ae (0x3001)]
    Please specify device type with the -d option.

    Unforunately, smartctl shows my device lacks SMART capability.

GSmartControl: GUI for smartctl

Website loading

# http
$ curl -s -w 'Testing Website Response Time for :%{url_effective}\n\nLookup Time:\t\t%{time_namelookup}\nConnect Time:\t\t%{time_connect}\nPre-transfer Time:\t%{time_pretransfer}\nStart-transfer Time:\t%{time_starttransfer}\n\nTotal Time:\t\t%{time_total}\n' -o /dev/null

# https
$ curl -s -w 'Testing Website Response Time for :%{url_effective}\n\nLookup Time:\t\t%{time_namelookup}\nConnect Time:\t\t%{time_connect}\nAppCon Time:\t\t%{time_appconnect}\nRedirect Time:\t\t%{time_redirect}\nPre-transfer Time:\t%{time_pretransfer}\nStart-transfer Time:\t%{time_starttransfer}\n\nTotal Time:\t\t%{time_total}\n' -o /dev/null

Lookup Time:		0.004311
Connect Time:		0.010050
AppCon Time:		0.049561 (https only)
Redirect Time:		0.000000 (https only)
Pre-transfer Time:	0.049659
Start-transfer Time:	5.035105

Total Time:		5.174981
$ wget -c
$ python
  DNS Lookup   TCP Connection   TLS Handshake   Server Processing   Content Transfer
[     4ms    |       8ms      |     34ms      |      31300ms      |       169ms      ]
             |                |               |                   |                  |
    namelookup:4ms            |               |                   |                  |
                        connect:12ms          |                   |                  |
                                    pretransfer:46ms              |                  |
                                                      starttransfer:31346ms          |

ApacheBench (ab)

Network speed

iperf: network speed test between two boxes

  • How To Use iPerf To Test Network Speed From Host To Host. The default port for iPerf 3 is 5201. iPerf 2 default port is 5001.
    # Server
    iperf3 -s
    # Client
    iperf3 -c XXX.XXX.X.XX

    Test on Raspberr Pi 3B+ and ODroid Xu4

    client not matter, ethernet cable not matter
    server: pi3b+ running ubuntu 20.04.1 64-bit
    [ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
    [  4]   0.00-1.00   sec  39.3 MBytes   329 Mbits/sec    1    239 KBytes       
    [  4]   1.00-2.00   sec  38.2 MBytes   320 Mbits/sec    0    270 KBytes
    server: pi3b+ running raspberry pi OS lite (buster) 32-bit 
    SAME result as above. Note Pi 3B+ ethernet is slower than Udoo Quad
    server: odroid xu4 ubuntu 20.04.1 64-bit
    [ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
    [  4]   0.00-1.00   sec   109 MBytes   911 Mbits/sec    0    334 KBytes       
    [  4]   1.00-2.00   sec   107 MBytes   900 Mbits/sec    0    334 KBytes
    server: Udoo Dual ubuntu 20.04.1/Armbian 20.08 Focal 32-bit
    [ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth       Retr  Cwnd
    [  4]   0.00-1.00   sec  63.8 MBytes   535 Mbits/sec    0   1.30 MBytes       
    [  4]   1.00-2.00   sec  54.9 MBytes   460 Mbits/sec    0   1.33 MBytes


SSH speed test

Linux Fu

yes | pv | ssh user@remote_host "cat >/dev/null"

rsync --progress

time command

transfer_speed = (file_size * 8) / (transfer_time * 1000000)

For example, if you transferred a 10 MB file in 5 seconds, the transfer speed would be calculated like this: transfer_speed = (10 * 1024 * 1024 * 8) / (5 * 1000000) = 16.78 Mbit/s

In the formula for calculating the transfer speed in megabits per second (Mbit/s), we divide by 1,000,000 (one million) to convert the result from bits per second (bit/s) to megabits per second (Mbit/s).